The youth timebomb: why the angry generation is becoming the militant generation

talibanFor many years people have been trying to explain why rational young men turn to extremism. From French revolution era protests like the Babeuf plot, the exploits of the IRA to modern day Islamist extremists at home and abroad, academics, psychologists and historians have tried to understand why they commit such heinous acts against their fellow men.

Now, not for the first time, sexual availability (and the lack there of) has been cited as the main cause of Afghan men joining the Taliban by journalist Mujib Mashal in an article for Foreign Policy.

Of course, I do know pretend to be an expert on the subject of Afghan culture but I find it hard to believe it can be boiled down to such a simple cause.

Mashal argues young men in the still deeply traditionally Afghanistan are becoming sexually frustrated by the lack of marriage opportunities in a country where bride prices remain high despite low levels of employment. Many men are being forced to seek employment as labourers in Iran to raise the money demanded by women’s families and are thus (supposedly) remaining virgins for longer.

The build up of this frustration is supposedly being exploited by the Taliban who offer the best wages in the area, especially in Helmand, and the promise of 72 virgins waiting for them in paradise.

While I have to concede Mashal probably knows more about the specifics of the region (and being a man) than I do, I have to question if it can really be that simple. To boil down all male frustrations in a situation as complex as Afghanistan seems unnecessarily reductive.

Instead the picture, as always, is more complex.

Some blame must be held at the feet of the NATO occupation itself. Whilst America and their allies have been welcome in the past by the metropolitan elites of Kabul, after 11 and a half long years of occupation their patience is wearing thin.

The invading forces promised democracy, prosperity and peace they are struggling to deliver on that promise. Afghanistan is at the bottom of Transparency International’s list of corruption states alongside North Korea and Somalia. Hamid Karzai is supported by the NATO alliance not because he is a paragon of democratic virtue, but because he is not the Taliban. There are still questioning lingering over the the Afghan government’s legitimacy as well as the undue influence of Karzai’s family which has grown mysteriously wealthy since he took office.

Karzai’s own brother has been linked to the lucrative opium trade rampant in the country which is said to provide the Taliban with most of their funds.

As much as I am loathed to use historical examples as an absolute guide to the future of the country, I have to draw some parallels with America past interventions in the 20th century. The support of the Batista regime in Cuba, despite local opposition made it easier for Fidel Castro to swoop in as the America’s feared.

So a similar fate could await Afghanistan when the troops pull out. With even Karzai himself blaming the corruption woes of the country on its foreign occupiers it is easy to see how dissatisfaction can turn into extremism.

Like the young in the UK, Afghan young people were promised prosperity. However, unlike the young in the UK, they are living in an extreme and dangerous environment. After growing up amidst bloodshed and warfare a whole generation of young men and women thought they would start to see the beginning of a new order which has been instead mired in the old ways of corrupt leaders, blind occupiers and frustrated local communities.

For young (and old) women, domestic violence, rape and honour killings are still commonplace. Women were forced to accept a law passed in 2009 that banned them leaving the house in certain circumstances without the consent of their husbands. While the more urban educated classes may welcome women’s emancipation, the rural attitudes towards women suggest the country still has a long way to go.

For young men, often there only one choice; become a labourer or become a ‘freedom fighter’. With great wealth and power cut off by the dominance of a corrupted elite, the windows that appeared to open in 2001 have snapped shut in their faces. Many are too young to really remember what life was like under the Taliban and many are probably feeling like the unknown foreign devil is convenient scapegoat for all their problems.

Instead of sexual frustration, maybe the real reason for so many young men joining the Taliban is frustration itself. Sex, eternal glory and wealth all play their part in a bigger picture of dissatisfaction and disenchantment with the status quo. Maybe joining the Taliban for many young men in Afghanistan is an act of defiance? Instead of wanting 72 virgins, maybe this just want someone to sit up and take notice?

Drug Policy At The Heart of Peru’s Left Wing Political Shake Up

Ollanta Humala Promised To Tackle Poverty And Corruption During His Election Campaign. Courtesy of Associated Press/Nytimes

Much like every European or North American leader claims to have a magic salve to fix the deficit, every Latin American leader promises to fight corruption. Some have no intention of doing so, some do but are swept up into the system they tried to destroy but some surprise you.

When left-wing Ollanta Humala was swept into power at the beginning of June he, like every other democratically elected President before him, promised to fight poverty and social exclusion by tackling the lingering corruption and cronyism endemic in the Peruvian political and justice systems.

A former army officer who staged a short-lived rebellion against President Alberto Fujimori (who is currently in prison for embezzlement and bribery as well as being the father of Humala’s rival in the election, Keiko Fujimori), many were worried that in power he would follow the interventionist policies of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela, especially after his previous election campaign in 2006 where he campaigned for a ‘socialist revolution’. The stock exchange in Lima, the capital, fell 10 per cent on the result.

Humala’s record seemed that he would become a leftist firebrand but previous experience more often than not would indicate that he would go the way of his predecessors and begin to prop up the existing system he campaigned against.

His move to force 30 of the country’s 45 police generals into early retirement last week seems to show he’s going to keep up his interventionist, radical ways. He wants to tackle what he sees as corruption in the police force which helps Peru’s illegal drugs trade to flourish. Peru is one of the world’s largest cocaine producers. One of the chiefs removed was General Raul Becerra who was head of Peru’s anti drugs division, Dirandro.
Continue reading Drug Policy At The Heart of Peru’s Left Wing Political Shake Up